Understanding Dyslexia

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Dr. Troy, a mother of two and an expert in educational neuroscience, specializes in dyslexia treatments. She holds a doctorate in education, is a researcher in neuroscience and reading disabilities, and a Nationally Board Certified teacher in early and middle literacy. Known for her tenacious, nurturing approach, Dr. Troy brings advanced dyslexia interventions into homes, making them accessible and practical for families.

Hi, I'm Dr. Troy

Understanding Dyslexia: A Deep Dive for Parents Ready to Empower Their Children

As parents, we’re on an ongoing journey to fully comprehend the layers of our children’s worlds, especially regarding their unique learning paths. If your child has been diagnosed with dyslexia, or if you have a hunch they might be dyslexic, you’re likely on a quest for knowledge, seeking to arm yourself with the right resources to stand by them. This detailed guide is crafted with care to help you gain a deeper understanding of dyslexia, its origins, how it’s identified, and effective strategies to equip your child to rise above and beyond.

Unraveling Dyslexia

Dyslexia impacts the ability to process written and spoken language. It’s crucial to remember that dyslexia doesn’t mirror a person’s intelligence or potential. Many individuals with dyslexia have average or above-average intelligence, and they can accomplish great things when given the right tools and support. Dyslexia is a condition, for sure, but it’s one that can be managed effectively, enabling those with dyslexia to thrive in academia and their chosen careers.

Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia

The manifestations of dyslexia can differ widely among individuals and may evolve as a child grows and learns. Early signs in preschool-aged children may involve difficulties with learning the alphabet, challenges with rhyming, and mixing up the order of numbers and letters. As children age, they might grapple with understanding written passages, spelling words correctly, and expressing their thoughts in writing. Below are specific signs and symptoms for children struggling with dyslexia by age group.

Preschool Age (3-5 years)

In the early years, dyslexia may not be as apparent because children are still learning basic language and reading skills. However, there are some early signs to watch out for:

  • Difficulty learning and remembering the names of letters in the alphabet
  • Trouble recognizing and producing rhymes
  • Struggle with pronunciation, often mixing up sounds in multi-syllable words
  • Difficulty with learning and correctly using new vocabulary words
  • Difficulty breaking words down into smaller parts (syllables)
  • Trouble with learning and remembering the correct sequence of numbers, days of the week, or colors

Elementary School Age (5-12 years)

As your child begins school and starts to engage more deeply with written language, symptoms of dyslexia may become more noticeable:

  • Problems learning the connection between letters and sounds
  • Struggling with spelling, often misspelling words inconsistently
  • Difficulty reading single words not surrounded by other words
  • Reading at a lower academic level than the standard for their age
  • Difficulty understanding and processing what they read
  • Avoiding activities that involve reading
  • Struggling with word problems in math
  • Difficulty with handwriting or fine motor skills

Teenagers and Adults (13 years and above)

As individuals grow older, they often develop strategies to hide dyslexia. Teens and adults may be able to read well but might still struggle with spelling, writing, and pronouncing certain words. Other signs include:

  • Struggling with reading aloud
  • Difficulty understanding abstract ideas
  • Problems with reading comprehension, often leading to a lower understanding of texts, avoidance of reading, or difficulty completing tasks involving reading
  • Difficulty organizing and managing time
  • Struggle with learning a foreign language
  • Difficulty summarizing a story or organizing ideas in writing

It’s important to remember that these signs can vary from person to person and not everyone will experience all these symptoms.

Exploring the Causes and Risk Factors

Genetic Factors

Dyslexia has a strong genetic component. It frequently runs in families, and many studies have found that if a parent has dyslexia, there’s a higher chance their child will also have it. Several genes have been identified that may contribute to the development of dyslexia. These genes are associated with the development and function of the brain, particularly the areas involved in language processing.

Brain Structure and Function

People with dyslexia often show differences in brain structure and function. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that when people with dyslexia read, they use different neural pathways compared to people without dyslexia. In addition, structural differences have been found in the left hemisphere of the brain, specifically in the areas involved in reading and language processing. These structural and functional differences are thought to be responsible for the difficulties people with dyslexia have with reading, spelling, and phonological processing.

Prenatal and Early Life Factors

Certain factors during pregnancy and early life may increase the risk of developing dyslexia. These include premature birth, low birth weight, and exposure to nicotine, drugs, or alcohol during pregnancy. Infections during pregnancy, particularly those that affect the central nervous system, can also increase the risk. Early childhood factors that may contribute to dyslexia include chronic ear infections, which can lead to intermittent hearing loss and disrupt the development of phonological skills.

Environmental Factors

While the primary causes of dyslexia are likely genetic and neurological, environmental factors can also play a role. These include the language and literacy environment at home and school, as well as the quality and timing of reading instruction. Children who don’t have access to quality early literacy instruction may be at a higher risk for reading difficulties, including dyslexia.

A Glimpse into the Neuroscience of Dyslexia

The field of neuroscience has made significant strides in shedding light on the intricate workings of dyslexia. Brain imaging studies reveal that individuals with dyslexia engage different parts of their brain when reading compared to those without the condition. Furthermore, there’s often less activity in areas of the brain typically associated with processing language, offering us a window into the unique neural paths dyslexic brains follow.

Unpacking Treatment and Intervention Strategies

It’s important to remember that dyslexia can be successfully managed with the right strategies. Specific neurological interventions can help children overcome their reading and spelling difficulties and embrace their unique learning styles. Our Retrain the Dyslexic Brain course harnesses the power of neuroscience-based techniques to boost reading skills right in your own home in as little as 15 minutes per day.

Supporting Your Child’s Journey at Home

Your role as a parent is pivotal in helping your child navigate their dyslexia journey. Encourage a love for reading at home, engage in interactive activities that bolster language skills, and maintain open, positive communication with your child’s educators. Remember, your child’s sense of self-worth and emotional well-being are as important as their academic progress.

Gaining a deep understanding of dyslexia is a key step in empowering your child to triumph over their learning challenges. With the right knowledge and resources, you can offer the support your child needs. Always remember, with the right strategies and support, dyslexia doesn’t have to define your child’s potential.

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